History of Samsun

Paleolithic artifacts found in the Tekkeköy Caves can be seen in Samsun Archaeology Museum. The earliest layer excavated of the höyük of Dündartepe revealed a Chalcolithic settlement. Early Bronze Age and Hittite settlements were also found there and at Tekkeköy. Samsun (then known as Amisos, Greek Αμισός, alternative spelling Amisus) was settled in about 760–750 BC by Ionians from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. The citys ideal combination of fertile ground and shallow waters attracted numerous traders.

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The city was captured by the Persians in 550 BC and became part of Cappadocia (satrapy). In the 5th century BC, Amisus became a free state and one of the members of the Delian League led by the Athenians;  it was then renamed Peiraeus under Pericles. Starting the 3rd century BC the city came under the control of Mithridates I, later founder of the Kingdom of Pontus. The Amisos treasure may have belonged to one of the kings. Tumuli, containing tombs dated between 300 BC and 30 BC, can be seen at Amisos Hill but unfortunately Toraman Tepe was mostly flattened during construction of the 20th century radar base.

The Romans took over in 71 BC and Amisos became part of Bithynia et Pontus province. Around 46 BC, during the reign of Julius Caesar, Amisus became the capital of Roman Pontus. From the period of the Second Triumvirate up to Nero, Pontus was ruled by several client kings, as well as one client queen, Pythodorida of Pontus, a granddaughter of Marcus Antonius. From 62 CE it was directly ruled by Roman governors, most famously by Trajan's appointee Pliny. Pliny the Younger's address to the Emperor Trajan in the 1st century CE "By your indulgence, sir, they have the benefit of their own laws," is interpreted by John Boyle Orrery to indicate that the freedoms won for those in Pontus by the Romans was not pure freedom and depended on the generosity of the Roman emperor.

The estimated population of the city around 150 CE is between 20,000 and 25,000 people, classifying it as a relatively large city for that time. The city functioned as the commercial capital for the province of Pontus; beating its rival Sinope (now Sinop) due to its position at the head of the trans-Anatolia highway 

In Late Antiquity, the city became part of the Dioecesis Pontica within the eastern Roman Empire; later still it was part of the Armeniac Theme. Samsun Castle was built on the seaside in 1192, it was demolished between 1909 and 1918.
In Photos History of Samsun Photo Gallery
Medieval and Modern History Samsun was part of the Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum, the Empire of Trebizond, and was one of the Genoese colonies.
After the breakup of the Seljuk Empire into small principalities (beyliks) in the late 13th century, the city was ruled by one of them, the Isfendiyarids. It was captured from the Isfendiyarids at the end of the 14th century by the rival Ottoman beylik (later the Ottoman Empire) under sultan Bayezid I, but was lost again shortly afterwards.

The Ottomans permanently conquered the town in the weeks following August 11, 1420.

In the later Ottoman period, it became part of the Sanjak of Canik (Turkish: Canik Sancağı), which was at first part of the Rûm Eyalet. The land around the town mainly produced tobacco, with its own type being grown in Samsun, the Samsun-Bafra, which the British described as having "small but very aromatic leaves", and commanding a "high price." The town was connected to the railway system in the second half of the 19th century, and tobacco trade boomed. There was a British consulate in the town from 1837 to 1863.

Samsun, then home to an Armenian community numbering over 5,000, was heavily affected during the Armenian Genocide of 1915. According to local eyewitnesses, such as Hafiz Mehmet, many of the Samsun Armenians were drowned in the Black Sea. Others were deported from Samsun and ultimately massacred in provinces further south. After the Armenian Genocide, there remained eleven islamicized Armenians and two Armenian physicians. Armenian orphans who had survived were given to Turkish families.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established the Turkish national movement against the Allies in Samsun on May 19, 1919, the date which traditionally marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. Atatürk, appointed by the Ottoman government as Inspector of the Ninth Army Troops Inspectorate of the Empire in eastern Anatolia, left Constantinople aboard the now-famous SS Bandırma May 16 for Samsun. Instead of obeying the orders of the Ottoman government, then under the control of the occupying Allies, he and a number of colleagues declared the beginning of the Turkish national movement. As a result of this, the Greek population of Samsun was subject to looting, massacre and deportation by Turkish irregular groups, as noted by representatives of the American Near East Relief. However these groups couldn't operate freely in Samsun as they did in adjacent region of Merzifon and Bafra due to the presence of the Allied fleet. Being alarmed due to the presence of Greek warships in the vicinity of Samsun the Turkish national movement undertook the deportation of 21,000 local Greeks to the interior of Anatolia. Later, in early June 1922, the city was bombarded by the Allied navy.

By 1920, Samsun's population totaled about 36,000.
Districts Of Samsun
It consist of Alaçam, Asarcık, Atakum, 19 Mayıs, Ayvacık, Bafra, Çarsamba, Canik, Havza, İlkadım, Kavak, Ladik, Salıpazarı, Tekkeköy, Terme, Vezirköprü and Yakakent Districts.

Climate Features
Samsun generally has a mild climate. Also summer is hot, winter is moderate and rainy in the coastal region, but there is seen harder climatic type within the interior places.

Great Mosque
Also called Hamidiye Mosque and Valide Mosque, famous Great Mosque was built Hacı Ali of Batum in 1884. Later it was renovated by Valide or mother of Ottoman Sultan Abdulaziz. It reflects Classic Ottoman Art Style and it is biggest mosque in Samsun. Takin a place in a big yard, the glorious mosque with was made of face stone. It has four special domes decorated with engraving and a wooden mimbar covered with the star and medallion motives which creates a fascinating atmosphere for the visitors.

Hamamyagi Thermal Spring
Well known Samsun Hamamyagi Hot Spring is in fact looking like a nursing home for sick people. Located in Ladik, province of Samsun, this healing centre includes a sparkling mineral water in a high level which is good for rheumatism, nerve diseases, neuritis and etc. hence, today it is not only visited by domestic people but also various foreign people coming from different country visit here in order to heal.

Samsun Gazi Museum
One of the other unique masterpieces in Samsun, Gazi Museum was built by grand architect Jean Lonnis Mantika in order to be used as a hotel named as Mantika Palas in 1902. It is well known that it was given as a gift to the great leader of Turkish Republic, Ataturk. Later this miraculous structure was turned into a museum. Today, this museum which contains photographs, documents belonging to Ataturk and a miniature of Bandırma Ferry is open to visit.

Amisos Hill
Amisos Hill is placed at the centre of the Samsun city. It is also next to the Batıpark which is the wonderful place of amusement, Amisos hill provides the people amazing atmosphere; when they visit here, they can drink tea and enjoy with the huge, dreamy landscape of the city from this hill.

Tekkekoy Caves
Located within the borders of the Tekkeköy District, surrounded by big and small pits and caves carved in the rocks, Tekkeköy Caves reflect the prehistoric or primitive time with its natural structure and relics and tools belonging to the First Age such as bracelets, earrings, vessels knives, pins, barbs , daggers and the bone tools .

Samsun Archaelogy Ethnographic Museum
Opened to the public in 1981, this splendid museum consists of two private halls, various mythological scenes on a mosaic base by illustrating Trojan War including Achilles and Thetis, the famous Amisos treasury, coins of and the works of the Chalcolithic, First Bronze Age, Hittite, Hellenistic and Roman periods.

Mater Dolorasa Church
Mater Dolorasa Catholic Church is a very important for both Samsun people and Christians due to its deep history. At the past Christians escaped from their country and settled into here so that they freely worship. Therefore the public and their leaders 8 monks built this marvellous construction here.

Amazon Village
Being an artificial village, Amazon Village was constructed by Samsun Metropolitan Municipality to show the visitors the Amazon History. Today, when the tourists come there, they witness closely Amazon History by seeing waxworks of Amazon female fighters, tents illustrating their daily life, caves, prisons, and weapons.